Mans Impact On The Environment Essay Spm

Human Impact on the Environment

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Human Impact on the Environment


Introduction
============

In this project I aim to explain the contributes to the environment by
the actions of humans and display the consequences.

I am going to divide the project into different sections and then sub
sections to make the project easier to navigate around and keep the
information in relevant sections.

· Section 1: HABITAT REDUCTION BY HUMANS.

ü The building of houses and roads

ü Quarrying

ü Farming

ü The draining of wetland areas

ü Recreational uses

· Section 2: POLLUTION.

ü WATER POLLUTION- sewage, fertilisers, chemicals and eutrophication.

ü AIR POLLUTION- Sulphur dioxide from burning fossil fuels leading to
acid rain, carbon dioxide from burning of fossil fuels and methane
from cattle and rice fields leading to greenhouse effect and global
warming.

ü LAND POLLUTION - pesticides, herbicides, and nitrates wash into
rivers and lakes affecting food chains.



Habitat reduction by Humans
===========================

Human beings are dependent on the Earth's diversity of species for our
survival. Wild species play a vital role in the maintenance of the
planets ecological functions, yet everyday on the planet 40-100
species become extinct. Many countries across the world have not got
an endangered species act that is strong enough to protect varying
species from the destruction of humans.

All over the globe humans are determined in building more houses and
roads to supply the growing population of it's residence, making their
lives easier but not sparing a thought to the many habitats, lives and
even species that they will destroy when doing so. A recent local case
has been the building of the BNRR. When building houses and roads
fields, rivers, ponds, and reservoirs get destroyed along with many
animals habitat, leaving them with no where to live and will probably
die.

The whole point of crop farming (monoculture) is to remove a mixed
population of trees, shrubs etc and replace it with a dense population

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Human Impact         Environment         Vital Role         Endangered Species Act         Sections         Fossil Fuels         Greenhouse Effect         Carbon Dioxide        




of wheat or beans. So maximum crop numbers can be achieved every
attempt is made to destroy threat to the crop such as pigeons and
rabbits, which try to feed on the harvest. The balance between life
and natural plant is upset; the animals are forced to live in small
areas of woodland, hedgerow or heath. There is not enough food to go
around and the stronger survive, many animals will die but some
species may even die out.

When draining wetland areas it destroys the habitat of its inhabitants
such as fish, swans and ducks. They will move to other areas but this
causes that area to become overpopulated and not having enough food
for all, causing them to die out.

Waste disposal is a fast increasing problem as the population is
increasing so is the amount of waste products. Landfill sites take up
space, which would have been used by many different species before it
was used for waste disposal. The rubbish makes the land inhabitable
for animals also dangerous as many animals get injured by glass, sharp
shards of metal, along with others who get trapped in the plastic
rings used to hold beer cans and die.



Pollution
=========

Sewage contains bacteria from human intestine, which can be harmful to
humans and animals. These harmful bacteria must be removed along with
chemicals such as soap and detergent to make them safe enough to be
released into the river. If sewage were released into rivers before
being treated it would no doubt kill any inhabitants in the river.
Some bacteria cause diseases such as typhoid and cholera when they get
inside human intestine. The faeces passed by those suffering of the
disease will contain the harmful bacteria. If these bacteria was
released into rivers and got into drinking water the diseases could be
spread to hundreds of people

Many industrial processes produce poisonous waste products. E.G
Electroplating produces waste containing copper and cyanide, if
release into rivers it would poison animals, plants and even humans
who drink the water.

Eutrophication is when nitrates and phosphates used on farmland and
sewage escape into rivers they causer excessive growth of microscopic
green plants. As the rate of increasing is so rapid the microscopic
animals that feed on them can't keep them in check. This causes them
to die and sink to the bottom of the river or lake. This is where
there bodies are broken down by bacteria which needs oxygen to break
them down which is taken from the water. The water becomes
deoxygenated and can no longer support the animal life, the fish and
other organisms die of suffocation.

It is simplified in the diagram below

[IMAGE][IMAGE]


[IMAGE]

Here is an example of the water surface in eutrophication.

Coal and oil contain sulfur, when these fuels are burned sulfur
dioxide is given off into the air. Although tall chimneys of factories
send sulfur dioxide into the air some of it still dissolves in rain
water and forms an acid, this is what's known as acid rain it can
reduce tree/plant growth and damage leaves, it also slowly dissolves
limestone and mortar on buildings. This form of pollution has been
going on for many years and getting worse, in some places it is
destroying forests and contributing to the death of fish.


Information on how the greenhouse affect effects the earth.The earth's
surface receives and absorbs radiant heat from the sun. As shown in
the diagram below, it re-radiates some of its heat back into space
while the remainder is absorbed and warms the earth. The energy
radiated back from the earth in the form of long wavelength is
absorbed by the earth's atmosphere. The atmosphere acts like the glass
in a greenhouse, it lets in heat and light from the sun but reduces
but reduces the amount of heat that escapes. Not all of the
atmospheric/greenhouse gases are equally effective at absorbing the
infrared radiation oxygen and nitrogen.

The gases, which do absorb the IR radiation, are water vapour, carbon
dioxide, methane and pollutants such as CFC's. These gases are at low
concentrations but if these were to continue increasing the climate
would get warmer. The largest build up of methane gas is over rubbish
tips and cattle/rice fields. most tips have got pipes which collect
the methane gas caused by the breakdown of organic matter such as
vegetables and paper, this gas can be used as fuel. Methane gas
however contributes to the greenhouse effect and as cattle/rice fields
have no method of collecting the natural production of the gas it is
left and contributes to global warming.

Global mean surface temperatures have increased 0.5-1.0°F since the
late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in
the last 15 years of the century. Of these, 1998 was the warmest year
on record. The snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere and floating ice
in the Arctic Ocean has decreased. Globally, sea level has risen 4-8
inches over the past century. Worldwide precipitation over land has
increased by about one percent and especially in the United States
frequency of extreme rainfall events has increased

Graph of Global Temperature Changes 1880 - 2000.Nitrogen oxides


Nitrogen oxides along with sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide are
produced and released into the atmosphere by cars and a lot of
factories all over the world, a large quantity of this usually in busy
areas such as city's causes the unnatural build up of smog


Although smoke produced by cars etc has been largely eliminated from
our towns/ city's vehicle exhaust gases, contain microscopic particles
coated in hydrocarbons. It is estimated that these hydrocarbons are
the cause of around 10,000 deaths every year, particularly with people
suffering lung diseases such as bronchitis.


Pesticides

Many farmers use chemicals to encourage healthy crop growth, prevent
weed growth and prevent damage by pests and disease. This can effect
the crops by increasing their commercial value but it also can mean
that the crop are less healthy to consumers because traces of the
plant may contain chemicals left in the plant.

Pesticides are chemicals that destroy pest's weeds and diseases, when
these are used the yield (amount produced) of a crop can be
dramatically increased.

Herbicides are chemicals, which can be specific to destroying a
species of plant or part of a plant or just to kill all plants.

When an excess of pesticide/ herbicide is produced then it can badly
disrupt food chains and bioaccumulation occurs. This is when
insecticides are not broken down and become concentrated from one
level in the food chain (Trophic level) to another in fatty deposits
of top carnivores such as birds of prey.

E.g. in the late 1950's sparrow hawk and peregrine populations fell
dramatically due to the introduction of insecticides, this is because
particular insecticides caused shell thinning and circumstantially
break during laying.

Insecticides also took effect on animals living in soils and on the
plants etc.



Conclusion
==========

Personally I fell these are all problems that should be improved on,
but I fell most strongly about global warming. Although precautions
have been taken to prevent this problem worsening, something need to
be done as temperature increases and sea level increase are currently
at a quite alarming rate and are proven to get worse and worse.



Impact of Industrialization on the Environment Essay

1343 Words6 Pages

Impact of Industrialization on the Environment

During the past several hundred years, humans have begun to industrialize rapidly. Tons of new technologies with all sorts of capabilities have sprung up. In many cases, these added capabilities have been used to manipulate natural things for human benefit, often at the expense of other things. On the other hand, technological advancement has required that humans come to a better understanding of the world, bringing with it a greater potential to do good, to manipulate things for the benefit of the planet. Technological advancement has essentially given us the “can”, and so now the question becomes “should”. Should we do something because we can? Industrialization has increased the…show more content…

People can now spend entire days indoors, without ever even being aware of whether or not the sun is shining. Food is available at the grocery store, in neat little packages that may be consumed at whim. Fruits and vegetables once considered seasonal are now available year-round. We can splice genes, create entirely new living things with weird abilities (plants that can repel pests without needing to be sprayed with pesticide? Animals that grow so large that their skeletons cannot support them?). The list goes on and on. The question is, what does all of this mean? What have we done with these remarkable abilities?

Technology has allowed us a certain degree of freedom from consequences. We can do things now that we never could have done before without a certain degree of human suffering. The major example of this, of course, is population growth. It all started back when we were hunter-gatherers: bands of people remained fairly small because that was all that the environment could support. There simply wasn’t enough food for anyone else. With the advent of agriculture, large civilizations began to develop because agriculture brought with it the ability to extract more nutrition from a smaller area of land. Since those early days, this has continued to be true of many technologies: they have enabled greater and greater numbers of humans to survive quite painlessly. “advances in agricultural and industrial technology

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