The global flow of silver from the mid sixteenth century to the early eighteenth century generally had very negative social and economic effects. Despite early benefits, the increased trade eventually weakened the Ming Empire and the Spanish states through dependency. Based on the documents, although the middleman benefited through the facilitation of trade, the effects of silver production ultimately damaged the society and economy of the states/empires that supplied or demanded silver in vast quantities. In China, many people first believed the increase of trade and thus the increase of silver was beneficial to the Ming Empire. Indeed a portion of the flow was necessary, especially when the emperor declared that all taxes and trade fees be paid in silver. Due to the scarcity of silver in China during the late 1500’s, many people were forced to turn to middlemen. This caused the value of products, particularly grain, to fall, which affected all areas of China’s economy and the people of China as well (Document 3). Wang Xijue’s report to the emperor demonstrates the need for silver. Being a court official, this issue was likely a concern for him because it could cause public unrest, which could ultimately lead to a rebellion against the Ming government. However, being a court official presents an interesting bias because he could have been exaggerating his claim in order to ensure he kept his government position. In addition, the growing importance of silver in Ming China is shown through an essay written by Xu Duniqiu Ming. He stated that previously people could take clothes to a dye shop and have them
Presentation on theme: "2006 – Silver DBQ You have 130 minutes to write 3 Essays… How you manage your time will be KEY!"— Presentation transcript:
1 2006 – Silver DBQYou have 130 minutes to write 3 Essays… How you manage your time will be KEY!
2 DBQ: SILVERHistorical Background: Spanish colonial America and Tokugawa Japan led the world in silver production From 1500 to In the Early 1570’s, the Ming Chinese government required that all domestic taxes and trade fees be paid in silver.2006 is the first time a World History DBQ included a map. The map was at times used erroneously as a document. Even with the map, some students mistook Ming China as Japanese, and treated the Philippines as an independentstate rather than a colony of Spain.
3 The Thesis Should…1. Address all parts of the question 2. Take a position on the question 3. Set out categories for discussion 4. Include Historical Context reference
4 Sample Thesis #1:“During the years 1500 to 1750, silver production became very popular. Spanish colonial America and Tokugawa Japan led the world in silver production. As a result, there were many social and economic effects of the global silver trade around the world. These effects impacted the whole world both positively and negatively at that time.”Thesis is Unacceptable:• Thesis merely restates the question.• First Sentence uses the wrong timeframe• Second sentence just restates the historical background provided.• Third sentence is just a restatement of the question and the writer does not take a position.• Use of “Many” is a virtually meaningless qualifier. You need to specify the types of effect.• Use of “Impacted” is not needed since the question does not ask about the impact of trade.
5 Sample Thesis #2:“The flow of silver during the mid-16th century to the early 18th century had a great impact on the social and economic aspects of many countries through trade, effect on land and the value of silver.”Thesis is Acceptable:• Not especially strong, but does establish the proper historical context (timeframe).• Thesis shows that the student understands the question.• The Student has framed a response that lends itself to grouping in the body of the essay.
6 Sample Thesis #3:“The increased flow of silver during the mid-16th century to the early 18th century caused social and economic effects in all regions connected with the trade by increasing the integration of Europeans in the globalization of world trade, while creating greater economic opportunities and causing growing social divisions within China.”Thesis is Excellent:• Thesis established the proper historical context (timeframe).• Thesis succinctly sums up the different social and economic effects facing different regions.• Thesis previews the POV within the several documents to be analyzed by later in the essay• Thesis would likely be eligible for the “Expanded Core” as a “clear, analytical, comprehensivethesis.”
7 STOP!Look at Documents!
9 QUESTION: “Using the documents, analyze the social and economic effects of the global flow of silver from the mid-sixteenth century to the early eighteenth century. Explain how another type of document would help you analyze the effects of the flow of silver bullion in this period.”
10 The Essay Should: Addresses all of the documents and demonstrates understanding of all or all but one.Biggest Mistake: Listing the documents separately or listing the documents as partof a group does not sufficiently demonstrate an understanding of basic meaning.
11 Unacceptable Demonstrations of Understanding:
“Docs 1, 3, and 5 all reflect the social impacts on China.”“The global flow of silver during this time period caused many disputes and changes between involved countries as seen in Docs 4, 8, and 2.”Note: While the grouping of these documents is acceptable, they have not beenaddressed properly using specific quotes or examples from each individual document.
12 Acceptable Demonstrations of Understanding:
“The economic impact of the global flow of silver in Spain during this time period can be easily seen in Docs 2 and 6. Document 2 [Tomas de Mercado] shows that the ballast stones used in the ships on the outgoing trip were replaced by the large amount of silver during their return trips; while document #6 [Antonio Vazquez de Espinos] claims that between 1545 and 1624 a total of approximately 326,000,000 silver coins were taken out of the mines in Potosi.”
13 The Essay Should Supports thesis with appropriate evidence from all or all but one document.
Unacceptable: In doc #8 Charles D’Avenant notes that the British had beensupplanted by the Dutch in the spice trade, but have continued trade in the EastIndies for “dyed cotton cloth, silks, drugs, cotton-yarn, and wool…”This is merely a (correct) summary of the document’s meaning, not evidence usedIN SUPPORT OF a thesis that has to do with the flow of silver.The quotation accurately supports the summarization, not a thesis statement.Common Mistakes:• Student fails to connect the document evidence to the focus of their thesis• Student merely quotes, summarizes, or paraphrases the document
14 Acceptable:“Spain was one of the countries that participated the most in the global flow of silver because of its numerous colonies, highly developed trading systems, and overlying sense of mercantilism during the 16th to 18th centuries. For example, the Spanish colonies in Mesoamerica experienced drastic changes in economy and exploitation of natural resources, as Spanish conquerors put Indian laborers to work mining silver. The exchange of currency was beneficial for the Spanish while detrimental to the natives. Mass amounts of silver left the mines of America for Spain and these amounts were produced by the labor of Indians. (Doc 6).”• The evidence from the document is used to support the thesis/topic sentence.• The document is used to support the essay, rather than the other way around.
15 Analyzes Point of View (POV) In at least TWO documents.
The Essay ShouldAnalyzes Point of View (POV)In at least TWO documents.KEY ISSUES WITH POV:Explains why this particular person might have this particular opinion OR whatparticular feature informs the author’s / intended audience’s POV.2. Must move beyond a mere description of that individual by considering and explaining:Tone,Characteristics of the author,Intended audience,Intended Outcome that may have influenced the author’s opinion.3. Mere attribution (copying or repeating info verbatim from the source line of the doc) isnot sufficient.
16 Unacceptable POV Analysis:
“Ralph Fitch (Doc #4) is biased because he is British.”OR“He Qiaoyuan (Doc #7) is biased because he was a Ming dynasty court official.”• Many students simply state that “an individual is biased because they are X, Y, or Z.”• Students must go beyond a mere description of an individual or defining characteristics.• Student must explain why this fact is significant in the analysis of the document.• Mere attribution does NOT constitute POV.
17 Acceptable POV Analysis:
“As an English scholar, D’Avenant (Doc #8) would certainly have wanted to support England’s own economic gain and any Parliamentary movement that would accomplish this.”This example not only recognizes the author’s occupation, but explains how that relatesto the author’s POV.“Qiaoyuan, a Ming court official, wrote to the emperor that the trade ban should be lifted because there are very high prices for Chinese goods on the market. His motives are suspicious since goods from his native province are desirable and he stands to gain from the lift of the ban, but this also shows a changing attitude of the Chinese on trade with foreigners.”This statement would apply toward rubric categories #2 (Meaning), #3 (Evidence)and #4 (POV) simultaneously.
18 STOP!GROUPING ACTIVITY!
19 The Essay Should Analyzes documents by grouping them in two or THREE ways, depending on the question.Unacceptable: “Documents 1, 3, and 5 all reflect the social impacts on China, whileDocument 7 is the only one that deals with the economic effect on China.”A single document cannot be a “group.” However, a single document CAN belong tomore than one grouping.Acceptable : “The global flow of silver during this time period caused manydisputes & changes economically between involved countries as seen in Docs 4, 8, & 2.”This topic sentence lends itself to document analysis and appropriately ties back to theeconomic aspects of a thesis.
20 **Students must identify an appropriate additional document or source
The Essay Should Identifies and explains the need for one type of appropriate additional document or source.**Students must identify an appropriate additional document or sourceand Explain HOW that document or source will contribute to an analysis of the topic.**
21 Unacceptable: “It would be good to have a document from a peasant.”
WHY would it be good to hear from a peasant?How do you think a peasant might have thought about these issues DIFFERENTLY from any of the given documents?What questions would an historian be able to answer with a peasant’s PERSPECTIVE that aren’t possible to answer now?
22 Acceptable: “It would be nice to see a document from a Chinese farmer/peasant to see if the increased flow of silver affected their lifestyles as Document 3 or 5 suggests.”This takes the unacceptable answer from the previous example and simply adds a rationale for how it would aid an historian.Acceptable: “It would help to have a document from a Japanese merchant, to see if the effects of the silver trade affected the Japanese economy as much as it did the Chinese and Spanish.”Simple, effective description of an additional document and an explanation of the use/need of it, especially since there were many references to Japan’s role in the trade, but no documents to reflect it.
23 Home WorkUsing the scoring sheet that I provided you on Tuesday you will go home, and read the provided essays 1A & 1B.Think about what we have talked about today as you read!
24 OverviewThe document-based question asked students to use eight documents to analyze the social and economic effects of the silver trade while demonstrating specific analytical skills. The documents contained ample evidence to support a number of different thesis statements ranging from class divisions to the effects of inflation to globalizing international trade. Each of the documents offered a clear opportunity for point-of-view analysis. Moreover, the language of many documents prompted such analysis based on tone. None of the documents could be categorized as purely social or purely economic, which resulted in a variety of grouping opportunities. The need for additional documents was clear, given the absence of documentary evidence from Japan, Portugal, Chinese peasant farmers, or South American miners.
25 STOP!Read Document 1A & attempt to score!!
26 Sample: 1A Score: 9The thesis in the first paragraph, spread across two sentences, addresses social and economic effects (1 point).All of the documents are addressed in the essay as is the meaning of each document (1 point).Evidence from each of the documents supports the thesis (2 points).Note that the reference to the encomienda system does not affect the use of evidence in the essay.The analysis of point of view is evident for Documents 4 and 6 (1 point).The documents are analyzed in three groups: Chinese, Spanish, and middlemen (1 point).Both suggestions for additional documents (Ming peasants and a Japanese perspective on silver mining) are appropriate and adequately explained (1 point).Expanded core points were earned for the use of historical context, the analytical nature of the thesis, and additional documents (2 points).
27 STOP!Read Document 1B & attempt to score!!
28 Sample: 1B Score: 6The thesis, linking silver to trade connections as well as to increasing labor and social unrest, comprises the last two sentences of the first paragraph (1 point).All of the documents are addressed in the essay as is the meaning of each document (1 point).Evidence from each of the documents supports the thesis (2 points).The documents are analyzed in three groups: effects on China, the European advantage, and European observers (1 point).The additional document is well explained at the end of the essay (1 point).The essay attempts to discuss point of view, but the analysis does not meet the minimum standard.